back to home

 

Business and Human Rights: a resource website

  Footwear companies  

See also the following sections of this website: 

NEW (recent additions to this section; top item is most recent addition)

Nike defends claims of sweatshop labour and false advertising -...the United States Supreme Court is about to hear a landmark case about whether Nike's defence of labour conditions in its factories represents false advertising. Nike is asking the Supreme Court to protect free speech by giving companies immunity from laws against false advertising...Nike's critics say false claims made in a speech is just as misleading to consumers as a claim made in a paid commercial. (AM, ABC Local Radio [Australia], 21 Apr. 2003)

Nike: Free Speech or "False Promises"? - On Apr. 23, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear charges that Nike committed consumer fraud by making false statements about the labor conditions in its overseas factories. (Aaron Bernstein, Business Week, 9 Apr. 2003)

Domini files amicus brief with Supreme Court in Nike v. Kasky - Socially Responsible Investors Argue that Nike’s Position Threatens Securities Regulation - Domini Social Investments LLC today announced that it has filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court that supports San Francisco activist Marc Kasky in his effort to hold Nike accountable for its statements concerning the company’s use of sweatshop labor. (Domini Social Investments, 7 Apr. 2003)

Firms urged to help control Aids [Thailand] - Incentives suggested for businesses - International organisations urged the business sector yesterday to make the HIV/Aids epidemic one of the ``bottom line issues'' at the workplace. A one-day study programme, entitled ``Thailand CEO study mission on HIV/Aids'', was organised by Thailand Business Coalition on Aids (TBCA) to brief top management people about the HIV/Aids epidemic's impact on businesses and their employees. It was attended by more than 25 CEOs and senior managers of leading firms in Thailand including Unocal, Nike, Siam Commercial Bank, Thai Airways International and the Tourism Authority of Thailand. (Preeyanat Phanayanggoor, Bangkok Post, 5 Apr. 2003)

Legal case for doing the right thing -...As a wave of legal actions - such as a case alleging that Unocal, the US oil company, used forced labour in Burma - put business responsibility on trial, the voluntary versus mandatory debate is increasingly being overtaken by the law. Many question whether a law passed in 1789 - the Alien Tort Claims Act, through which some US courts have allowed lawsuits that allege US companies have violated international laws abroad - should be used in this way. But whatever the outcome of such cases (no company has yet made any payment) and the result of the debate, the potential liability of multinational companies in relation to corporate responsibility is becoming harder to ignore...Laws on misrepresentation or false advertising can come to bear on what companies voluntarily disclose about themselves. Currently under the spotlight is Nike, which was sued by Marc Kasky, an activist who alleged the company made false statements in press releases about its labour practices...Many of the legal challenges facing companies today are examined in a report released last month. Prepared by the International Institute for Environment and Development, it aims to demonstrate how the law is shaping corporate responsibility. (Sarah Murray, Financial Times, 31 Mar. 2003)

An Age Of Discrimination? The U.S. sees an increase in suits complaining of age and religious bias -...Although EEOC complaints are relatively easy to file, they face tough outcomes. Only about 20 percent of the complainants prevail. [refers to age discrimination complaint against Seal Dynamics; religious discrimination complaint against Computer Sciences Corp., Foot Locker Inc., Ford Motor Co.] (Carrie Mason-Draffen, Newsday, 23 Mar. 2003)

Guidelines:

Code of Labour Practices for the Apparel Industry including Sportswear (Clean Clothes Campaign, Oct. 1997)

Fair Labor Association Charter Document [USA] (Apparel Industry Partnership) 

Statements by business peole about human rights and business:

Paul Fireman, Chairman, Reebok International (USA)

Websites:

Academics Studying Nike: Research Methods and Academic Resources Web Site (maintained by David Boje, Professor of Management, New Mexico State University)

Adidas company website: "Social and Environmental Affairs"

BehindTheLabel.org

Clean Clothes Campaign

Company Policies for EEO [Equal Employment Opportunities] in Textiles, Clothing and Leather Manufacturing (International Labour Organization)

Co-op America's Sweatshops.org:

Fair Wear: Stopping exploitation of homebased outworkers in the clothing, textile & footwear industries (Australia)

Footwear: Working conditions and trade-union struggles (Centro Nuovo Modello di Sviluppa)

Issue Library: Sweatshops (CorpWatch)

Maquila Solidarity Network / Solidaridad de la Maquila

Nike company website:

Nike Shareholders for Justice

Nike's Track Record 1988-2000 (Clean Clothes Campaign) 

NikeWatch (Oxfam - Community Aid Abroad)

NikeWages.Org: Olympic Living Wage Project

Nikeworkers.org

Reebok company website: "Human Rights" 

Reebok initiatives in support of human rights

Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD), examples of succesful projects:

Nike: case in U.S. court regarding the company's conduct in Asia:

Other materials:

2003:

Nike defends claims of sweatshop labour and false advertising -...the United States Supreme Court is about to hear a landmark case about whether Nike's defence of labour conditions in its factories represents false advertising. Nike is asking the Supreme Court to protect free speech by giving companies immunity from laws against false advertising...Nike's critics say false claims made in a speech is just as misleading to consumers as a claim made in a paid commercial. (AM, ABC Local Radio [Australia], 21 Apr. 2003)

Nike: Free Speech or "False Promises"? - On Apr. 23, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear charges that Nike committed consumer fraud by making false statements about the labor conditions in its overseas factories. (Aaron Bernstein, Business Week, 9 Apr. 2003)

Domini files amicus brief with Supreme Court in Nike v. Kasky - Socially Responsible Investors Argue that Nike’s Position Threatens Securities Regulation - Domini Social Investments LLC today announced that it has filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court that supports San Francisco activist Marc Kasky in his effort to hold Nike accountable for its statements concerning the company’s use of sweatshop labor. (Domini Social Investments, 7 Apr. 2003)

Firms urged to help control Aids [Thailand] - Incentives suggested for businesses - International organisations urged the business sector yesterday to make the HIV/Aids epidemic one of the ``bottom line issues'' at the workplace. A one-day study programme, entitled ``Thailand CEO study mission on HIV/Aids'', was organised by Thailand Business Coalition on Aids (TBCA) to brief top management people about the HIV/Aids epidemic's impact on businesses and their employees. It was attended by more than 25 CEOs and senior managers of leading firms in Thailand including Unocal, Nike, Siam Commercial Bank, Thai Airways International and the Tourism Authority of Thailand. (Preeyanat Phanayanggoor, Bangkok Post, 5 Apr. 2003)

Legal case for doing the right thing -...As a wave of legal actions - such as a case alleging that Unocal, the US oil company, used forced labour in Burma - put business responsibility on trial, the voluntary versus mandatory debate is increasingly being overtaken by the law. Many question whether a law passed in 1789 - the Alien Tort Claims Act, through which some US courts have allowed lawsuits that allege US companies have violated international laws abroad - should be used in this way. But whatever the outcome of such cases (no company has yet made any payment) and the result of the debate, the potential liability of multinational companies in relation to corporate responsibility is becoming harder to ignore...Laws on misrepresentation or false advertising can come to bear on what companies voluntarily disclose about themselves. Currently under the spotlight is Nike, which was sued by Marc Kasky, an activist who alleged the company made false statements in press releases about its labour practices...Many of the legal challenges facing companies today are examined in a report released last month. Prepared by the International Institute for Environment and Development, it aims to demonstrate how the law is shaping corporate responsibility. (Sarah Murray, Financial Times, 31 Mar. 2003)

An Age Of Discrimination? The U.S. sees an increase in suits complaining of age and religious bias -...Although EEOC complaints are relatively easy to file, they face tough outcomes. Only about 20 percent of the complainants prevail. [refers to age discrimination complaint against Seal Dynamics; religious discrimination complaint against Computer Sciences Corp., Foot Locker Inc., Ford Motor Co.] (Carrie Mason-Draffen, Newsday, 23 Mar. 2003)

International Right to Know Campaign Promotes Disclosure of Global Corporate Impacts - In a recent report, the International Right to Know Campaign outlines the benefits of corporate disclosure of global environmental and social policies and practices...The McDonald's (MCD) case study illustrates the use of child labor in China to produce its Happy Meal toys, the Nike (NKE) case study focuses on labor rights abuses in Indonesia, and the Unocal (UCL) case study discusses human rights abuses in its use of security forces in Burma. The ExxonMobil (XOM) case study alone illustrates several of the environmental as well as human rights abuses that the IRTK guidelines are meant to expose. (William Baue, SocialFunds.com, 27 Feb. 2003)

Multinational corporations: Balancing trick - [book review of Empires of Profit: Commerce, Conquest and Corporate Responsibility, by Daniel Litvin] -...a similar pattern emerges time and again: ill-prepared central managers, local officers facing unexpected difficulties on the ground, political pressures at home and abroad, all resulting in a catalogue of unintended and sometimes tragic consequences. [refers to case studies in the book, including United Fruit Company in Central America in the 1950s, Nike in Asia in the 1980s & 1990s] (Clive Crook, Economist, 27 Feb. 2003)

Allan Rock's office deluged with thousands of clothing labels, days before government due to respond to coalition's proposal for new disclosure rules to address sweatshop abuses [Canada] -...ETAG's [Ethical Trading Action Group's] detailed proposal, submitted in 2001, calls on the Industry Minister to make minor changes to the Textile Labelling Act requiring apparel companies to publicly disclose the names and addresses of the factories that produce their clothing...Retail and manufacturer associations have lobbied against the proposal for new disclosure rules, but several well-known retailers, including Roots Canada, Mountain Equipment Coop and American Apparel, have signalled their support. (Ethical Trading Action Group, 24 Feb. 2003)

Book Review: Unequal Protection: The Rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rights - In the Kasky v. Nike case...Nike's claim to free speech rights is predicated on an 1886 Supreme Court case that established "corporate personhood" and extended citizens' rights to corporations. However, the [U.S.] Supreme Court justices' 1886 decision did not, in fact, establish corporate personhood, according to author Thom Hartmann. (William Baue, SocialFunds.com, 21 Feb. 2003)

After workers unionize, Puma cuts and runs from Mexico - ..."When the customers do audits of the factory, the company forces us to lie."...Matamoros Garment is a factory that produces uniforms for restaurants and hospitals in the United States under the Angelica label, and sports apparel for the German corporation Puma. (Campaign for Labor Rights, 5 Feb. 2003)

Legal Issues in Corporate Citizenship -...Mandatory legislation on various aspects of business transparency is emerging around the world. It can form part of company law, environmental regulation, or tailored legislation for institutional investors or on social and environmental reporting. Pressure for enhanced public sector accountability has also given rise to calls for company reporting on revenues paid to host government by companies in the extractive industries...A new wave of legal actions – mostly in US courts, but also in some EU countries – is testing the boundaries of existing legal principles in relation to some of the most difficult issues of the CSR agenda. For example, a series of cases in the US, France and Belgium are testing how fundamental principles of international law – particularly human rights law – apply to parent companies of multinational corporate groups. (Halina Ward, International Institute for Environment and Development, Feb. 2003)

Reebok and the Global Footwear Sweatshop [India] -...there were violations of Reebok’s “Human Rights Production Standards” across the board at their key subcontractor’s plant [in India]. And the evidence suggests that Reebok was aware of these violations but persisted for quite some time with the manufacture of its athletic shoes at this plant. (Bernard D’Mello, Monthly Review, Feb. 2003)

Public Eye on Davos takes stock -...The Public Eye on Davos, in the spirit of transparency and open dialogue invited Phil Knight, CEO of Nike, and Lord Browne, CEO of BP, to share their views with civil society within the Public Eye. Both corporations have representatives attending the WEF, but they failed to attend the Public Eye. (Friends of the Earth, 28 Jan. 2003)

press release: Coalition Tells World Economic Forum: Building Trust Requires Disclosure - New Report Highlights U.S. Multinationals' Shameful Human Rights, Environmental and Labor Records - a coalition of environmental, development, labor and human rights groups today released a joint report entitled "International Right to Know: Empowering Communities Through Corporate Transparency."  The report documents the irresponsible environmental, labor and human rights practices committed by ExxonMobil, Nike, McDonald's, Unocal, Doe Run, Freeport McMoRan and Newmont Mining. (AFL-CIO, Amnesty International USA, EarthRights International, Friends of the Earth-US, Global Exchange, Oxfam America, Sierra Club, Working Group on Community Right to Know, 22 Jan. 2003)

Supreme Court to take up Nike and free speech [USA] - S.F. activist sued, saying firm lied about working conditions (Bob Egelko, San Francisco Chronicle, 11 Jan. 2003)

2002:

The industry needs a ruling in favor of truth, not Nike [case in U.S. court regarding Nike's denial of labour abuses at its supplier factories in Asia] - Sad is the professional society that doesn't recognize a gift when it sees it. Yet that is precisely what happened when the PRSA [Public Relations Society of America] and other industry groups filed an amicus brief with the US Supreme Court to overturn the decision and permit corporations to play loose with their facts...let's hope the Supreme Court doesn't take a step back and sanction misleading statements and half-truths. (Jeff Seideman, president of the Boston Chapter of the PRSA, in PR Week, 16 Dec. 2002)

EEOC [U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] settles major age bias suit; Foot Locker to pay $3.5 million to former Woolworth employees (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 15 Nov. 2002)

Nike in free speech battle [Kasky v. Nike: U.S. court case relating to Nike’s treatment of workers in a Vietnam factory] (Rebecca Spencer, Corporate Watch [UK], 13 Nov. 2002)

Short-sighted victories in free speech - The case against Nike in the US [Kasky v. Nike, case alleging false advertising regarding labour conditions]...could have devastating consequences for companies and campaigners alike, says Mallen Baker -...The risks involved in disclosure have just gone through the roof. (Mallen Baker, in Ethical Corporation Magazine, 13 Nov. 2002)

Nike, Adidas, Reebok and New Balance Made in China [working conditions and labour rights abuses] (Li Qiang, China Labor Watch, 25 Oct. 2002)

California supreme court decision potentially devastating for corporate responsibility reporting and SRI funds worldwide - The decision by the California courts against Nike [in the case of Kasky v Nike, relating to Nike's public defense of allegations of “sweatshop” labour in its Asian factories] has created a great deal of uncertainty among US corporations, reports Peter Clarke (Peter Clarke, Director of SRIMedia, in Ethical Corporation Magazine, 17 Oct. 2002)

Lagos fire: Tinubu warns as head-count of victims begins [Nigeria] - Governor Bola Tinubu of Lagos State, yesterday, warned the Management of Super Engineering Company, Ikorodu which went up in flames last Monday to desist from blaming the workers for the incident. About 120 workers were feared dead in the inferno. (Kenneth Ehigiator, Sina Babasola & Olasunkanmi Akoni, Vanguard [Nigeria], 20 Sep. 2002)

120 roast to death in Ikorodu factory fire [Nigeria] - About 120 factory workers were feared dead after a massive fire swept through a rubber slippers/aluminium spoon/bottled water factory [Taiwanese-owned] in the early hours of yesterday, at Odogunyan, in Ikorodu, Lagos State...It was gathered that the casualty figure would probably have not been that high if the exit points had not been locked. (Victor Ahiuma-Young, Olasunkanmi Akoni & Kenneth Ehigiator, Vanguard [Nigeria], 17 Sep. 2002)

Will McMaster University make Nike Canada sweat? Company will be tested for first time by a Canadian institution -...For the past two years, students, staff and faculty at McMaster have worked to develop a "Code of Labour Practices for University Suppliers and Licensees."...The first test for McMaster's disclosure provisions will be the university's "preferred supplier" contract, signed earlier this year with Nike Canada. (NUPGE, National Union of Public and General Employees [Canada], 14 Aug. 2002)

13 Companies Earn Perfect Score on First HRC Corporate Equality Index [USA]: Demonstrate Leadership with Regard to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Employees - A total of 13 major U.S. corporations earned 100 percent on the Human Rights Campaign Foundation's first Corporate Equality Index, released today. The index rates large corporations on policies that affect their gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employees, consumers and investors...The 13 companies that scored 100 percent are: Aetna Inc.; AMR Corp./American Airlines; Apple Computer Inc.; Avaya Inc.; Eastman Kodak Co.; Intel Corp.; J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.; Lucent Technologies Inc.; NCR Corp.; Nike Inc.; Replacements Ltd.; Worldspan L.P.; and Xerox Corp...At the other end of the scale, three companies scored zero: CBRL Group Inc./Cracker Barrel; Emerson Electric Co.; and Lockheed Martin Corp. (Human Rights Campaign, 13 Aug. 2002)

Ethical sourcing codes – the answer to supply chain sustainability concerns? Sarah Roberts looks at implementing ethical sourcing codes and the challenges of gaining certification [refers to clothing and footwear sectors; logging/forest products sector including firms Sappi, Mondi; building materials/do-it-yourself sector including firms Homebase, B&Q; chocolate industry] (Sarah Roberts, National Centre for Business and Sustainability, in Ethical Corporation Magazine, 1 Aug. 2002)

No Sweat: Neale Towart surveys the international debate around sweatshops and what can be done to regulate them [refers to labour abuses in textile, clothing & footwear industries in Morocco & Australia] (Neale Towart, in Workers Online, Labor Council of New South Wales, 12 July 2002)

Chinese shoe factory workers 'poisoned by glue' - Eight workers from a shoe factory in China are in hospital with glue poisoning. (Ananova, 9 July 2002)

Eco-Intelligence: Nike Transforms the Textile Industry - How does a company with annual revenues in the billions and more than 700 contract factories worldwide profitably integrate ecology and social equity into the way it does business, every day and at every level of operation? Ask Nike. (William Mcdonough and Michael Braungart, [email protected] magazine, July-Aug. 2002) 

Fire kills at least 42 workers in shoe factory in India - Shree Jee International, a footwear manufacturing unit based in Agra, India and exporting to among others the UK and Ireland...At the time of the accident the only door at the entrance of the factory was locked...Shipping documents indicated that the shoes were meant for Barratts Co. [UK], Jacobson Footwear [UK]. (Clean Clothes Campaign, 26 June 2002)

Let Them Sweat -...sweatshops are the only hope of kids like Ahmed Zia, a 14-year-old boy here in Attock [Pakistan], a gritty center for carpet weaving. (Nicholas D. Kristof, New York Times, 25 June 2002)

Nike may move back in to Cambodia: New scrutiny of labour laws bring transparency - U.S. sportswear giant Nike may be about to make a comeback in Cambodia, two years after a television documentary on underage girl workers prompted the company to stop using factories in the country...Nike's possible change of heart has come about following the launch of independent monitoring in the country by the International Labour Organization. (National Post [Canada], 18 June 2002)

The rapid rise of a new responsibility [regarding problems companies are having in integrating corporate social responsibility into the workforce] [refers to how Gap & Nike developed expertise on human rights and labour issues] (Sarah Murray, Financial Times, 11 June 2002)

Burma's military junta losing its shirts - Apparel imports [into USA from Burma] plummet 35% as companies act on human rights, business uncertainty -...Concerned with human rights abuses including forced labor and forced child labor, dealing with a sudden cancellation of import licenses for foreigners, and facing legislation that would ban all imports from the country, 30 U.S. importers and/or retailers have announced they will not sell goods from Burma since June 2000, including retail giants Wal-Mart, Kenneth Cole, Hanes, and Gart Sports. (Free Burma Coalition, 6 June 2002)

China Capacity Building Project - Occupational Health and Safety - Final Report -...The project [at factories producing for Reebok, Nike & adidas] has resulted in the creation of young, but functioning, worker-management committees, including one committee supported by a democratically elected union. These committees are the first step in building systems for worker participation in evaluating and improving health, safety, and environmental conditions inside these factories. (Project Coordinating Committee, 29 May 2002)

Blaze in Indian Shoe Factory Kills 44: Global Union Demands Measures to Clean Up Industry - In the wake of a fire on May 24 at the Shri Ji International factory shoe factory in the Indian city of Agra which left 44 workers dead and 15 injured, the global union federation representing footwear workers worldwide has called on the Indian government to take immediate measures to prevent such a tragic loss of life from happening again. (International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation, 29 May 2002)

A new model for social auditing -...In future, companies will need to move way from self-promotional corporate social responsibility reports - such as those recently published by Reebok, Nike, McDonald's and Shell - and move towards independent evaluations by qualified third parties. They will have to open up their factories to independent audits that disclose publicly whether conditions have improved. (Elliot J Schrage, formerly senior vice-president of global affairs at Gap, teaches at Columbia Business School and Columbia Law School, in Financial Times, 27 May 2002)

Court says first amendment doesn't shield Nike from suit [USA]: California's highest court ruled yesterday that the First Amendment did not shield Nike from a lawsuit accusing it of fraud for asserting that its overseas workers received adequate wages and that its working conditions complied with safety regulations. (Steven Greenhouse, New York Times, 3 May 2002)

Calif. court says Nike can be sued for false ads [USA] - Sportswear giant Nike Inc. can be sued for false advertising over a publicity campaign that sought to dispel reports that Asian sweatshops are used to produce its famous footwear, California's Supreme Court ruled on Thursday. (Andrew Quinn, Reuters, 2 May 2002)

Firms pushed to disclose their impact on society: A coalition of governments, businesses and public interest groups launched last week a global campaign to encourage companies to issue public reports on their impact on society and the environment [Global Reporting Initiative]...The GRI guidelines are already being followed by more than 110 companies worldwide, including German chemicals group BASF AG, British Telecom, U.S. drug giant Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Japanese printer and photocopier maker Canon Inc., French Food group Danone, U.S.-based sports clothing company Nike and South African Breweries Plc. (Irwin Arieff, Reuters, 8 Apr. 2002)

Nike attempts to distance itself from child-labor history [at] annual event organized by UW [University of Washington] Net Impact — a group of MBA students trying to raise awareness about the advantages of socially and environmentally responsible business (Kevin Jones, University of Washington Daily, 3 Apr. 2002)

China: March evaluation visits to three giant footwear plants - Plant-wide health and safety committees involving production workers as full, active committee members have been established and are beginning to function in three large sports shoe factories in the Pearl River Delta of southern China. The plants involved are the Kong Tai Shoe plant in Longgan, the Pegasus plant in Panyu, and the Yue Yuen II plant in Dongguan City, which produce shoes for Reebok, Nike and adidas, respectively. The plants are all operated by Taiwanese companies. (Maquiladora Health & Safety Support Network Newsletter, 31 Mar. 2002)

Nike greenwash over sweatshop labour - Following years of criticism over its poor labour and environmental standards, Nike claims to have cleaned up its act, even signing onto the Global Compact to prove it. But the truth is rather different, and the company’s recent behaviour is a textbook study in greenwash. (Sharon Beder, Ecologist, 22 Mar. 2002)

Spotlight on Indonesian activist, Dita Sari [interview with labour activist Dita Sari; includes questions: What are the major problems facing Indonesian workers at present? You were offered the Reebok Human Rights Award this year, how did you come to the decision to refuse it?] (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 18 Mar. 2002)

'Drop your pants' outrage at Indonesian shoe factory: Oxfam says workers were put through humiliating examinations before getting the menstrual leave they were entitled to - Indonesian workers at a shoe factory supplying Nike and Adidas have had to prove to company doctors that they were menstruating in order to get their allotted sick leave. (AFP, in Straits Times [Singapore], 8 Mar. 2002)

Nike and Adidas 'have failed to stop sweatshop abuses': Indonesian workers producing sports shoes for the multinational companies Nike and Adidas live in extreme poverty and face prosecution and physical assault for trade union activity, according to a report published yesterday. (Richard Lloyd Parry, Independent [UK], 8 Mar. 2002)

Nike says improving Indonesian labor conditions: Athletic shoe giant Nike Inc. on Thursday welcomed an aid agency report alleging its workers in Indonesia are overworked and underpaid, but said it had already made improvements to shed its sweatshop image. (Reuters, 7 Mar. 2002)

Oxfam challenges Nike, Adidas to pay workers [Indonesia] (Miranda Korzy, AAP, 7 Mar. 2002)

Why Nike has broken into a sweat: The sports equipment maker has been a target for anti-sweatshop campaigners. It has responded with self-criticism, says Michael Skapinker...Nike's experience provides a vivid illustration of the perils facing companies that believe they can ignore the efforts of campaigning organisations (Michael Skapinker, Financial Times, 6 Mar. 2002)

Prison Blues; Starbucks, Nike, others profit from inmate labor [at U.S. prisons] - A partial list of companies that have worked within the prison system, directly employed prison workers, or contracted with companies that employ prison workers, either currently or in the past: Allstate, Best Western, Dell Computer, Eddie Bauer, Hawaiian Tropical Products, J. C. Penney, Kmart, Kwalu Inc., Konica, Lockhart Technologies, McDonald's, Merrill Lynch, Microjet, Microsoft, New York, New York Hotel and Casino, Nike, No Fear Inc., Omega Pacific, Parke-Davis, Planet Hollywood, Prison Blues (jeans), Shearson Lehman, Starbucks, Target, TWA, Victoria's Secret, Union Bay, Upjohn, Washington Marketing Group (Erica Barnett, In These Times, 4 Mar. 2002)

Moving up the learning curve – corporate management of supply chain labour standards - Recent reports on Triumph International (‘Support Breast not Dictators’) and Nike (‘We are not Machines’) have again drawn attention to the policy and management of supply chain labour issues within apparel and footwear companies. But overall is anything actually getting better? (John Sabapathy, Programme Manager at AccountAbility, in SustainAbility Radar, Mar. 2002)

Dita Sari Spurns Reebok Award [Indonesia]: Prominent women’s labor rights activist Dita Indah Sari has rejected a $50,000 human rights award from sporting apparel giant Reebok in protest against the meager salaries the company pays its Indonesian factory workers [includes text of Dita Sari’s Statement on Reebok Human Rights Award] (Laksamana.Net [Indonesia], 6 Feb. 2002)

Greenwash + 10: The UN's Global Compact, Corporate Accountability and the Johannesburg Earth Summit [includes reference to Nike] (Kenny Bruno, CorpWatch, 24 Jan. 2002)

Give up Nike, NZ protesters urge Tiger: Golfing superstar Tiger Woods has run into protest in New Zealand over his association with shoe and clothing manufacturer Nike (NZPA - New Zealand Press Association, 9 Jan. 2002)

Child labor and multinational conduct: a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes - This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes. With a standardized framework, it analyzes 55 codes drawn by these different actors (Ans Kolk & Rob van Tulder, Journal of Business Ethics, 2002)

2001:

Reebok Announces 2002 Human Rights Award Recipients: Four Women to be Honored - The 2002 winners include the founder of the first independent labor union in Indonesia; an advocate for abused children in Zambia; a rescuer of young girls enslaved as prostitutes in India; and an activist at the forefront of a new generation of civil rights leadership in the United States. (Reebok, 3 Dec. 2001)

Nobody's laughing now: We spoke to Richard Aylard and Jordana Friedman, Directors at Burson Marstellar’s Corporate Responsibility unit, who have a large number of corporate clients concerned about ethical business issues. We asked them about the thinking on both sides of the Atlantic on CSR and corporate advantage..."The first issues of a CSR nature that, to my mind, really captured and galvanized the public in the US were environmental issues in the early 90s and also, perhaps even more so, issues around human rights and labor rights that were affecting textile and shoe manufacturing firms and the retailers of those products in the US." (Ethical Corporation Magazine, 25 Oct. 2001)

Nike releases first corporate responsibility report: Key Issues Identified in Report: Working Toward Sustainability Goals, Reducing Climate Impact, Improving Factory Compliance (Nike, 9 Oct. 2001)

Resolution on Korean Companies Operating Overseas:...DEPLORING the exploitation of workers employed in Korean-owned textile, garment and footwear companies, who are often forced to work long hours in appalling conditions, and who when they attempt to organise to improve their working conditions face violence from security guards, death threats, plant closures, and the prospect of being blacklisted and denied future employment;...RESOLVES to establish a register of “Dirty Companies” the world should shun, to which would be added the names of all enterprises repeatedly abusing workers´rights, and to campaign to drive all such listed companies from the textile, clothing and leather industries. (Executive Committee of the International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation [ITGLWF], 23 Oct. 2001)

Making the business case for going green -...Mr. McDonough's clientele includes such corporate powers as The Gap, Nike, Ford Motor Co., and myriad smaller firms, for which he has built eco-friendly offices (Michael Fainelli, Christian Science Monitor, 18 Oct. 2001)

Mexican Labor Protest Gets Results: ...Mexmode — an assembly factory, or maquiladora — is a principal supplier of college sweatshirts to Nike and Reebok. Hearing that Mexmode workers were fired for their cafeteria boycott, leaders of an activist coalition supported by students and administrators from about 85 American colleges and universities rushed here to investigate...The group, the Workers Rights Consortium, heard complaints about low wages, verbal abuse and corruption among union officials, then began a high-profile campaign that threatened the image of the Nike swoosh. (Ginger Thompson, New York Times, 8 Oct. 2001)

Nike Partners with WWF and Center for Energy & Climate Solutions to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Through a new Climate Savers memorandum of understanding with World Wildlife Fund and the Center for Energy & Climate Solutions, Nike Inc. today committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions across its operations worldwide. Nike also will measure greenhouse gas emissions from contracted manufacturing and shipping operations with the intent to ultimately reduce those emissions. (World Wildlife Fund, 2 Oct. 2001)

Bangladesh...Ending the Race to the Bottom [report on sweatshop abuses in factories in Bangladesh producing for over 20 universities and Nike] (National Labor Committee, Oct. 2001)

Report on Dongguan Elegant Top Shoes Factory: Details of the conditions of one factory that produces Reebok shoes. This report shows how this factory does not even live up to the minimum requirements set under China's Labor Laws. (Li Qiang, China Labor Watch, Oct. 2001)

Nike's first Corporate Responsibility Report: This month Nike released a new Corporate Responsibility Report...The report includes some useful information, but its failure to respond to arguments made by the company's critics is deeply disappointing. Here are the positives and negatives. (NikeWatch [Oxfam - Community Aid Abroad], Oct. 2001)

Breakthrough in Mexico: Kuk Dong workers win independent union - Workers at the Kuk Dong factory in Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico have finally won their independent union and a signed collective agreement. This is a precedent-setting victory that could open the door to worker organizing in Mexico's maquiladora sector where, to date, independent unions have not been tolerated. (Campaign for Labor Rights and Maquiladora Solidarity Network, 26 Sep. 2001)

Pioneering trade union improves conditions in China 'sweatshop': A pioneering semi-independent trade union has vastly improved the lot of workers at a southern China factory [Taiwanese-managed Kong Tai Shoes plant in the special economic zone of Shenzhen] making shoes for US sports giant Reebok, slashing their hours and forcing through better working and living conditions, a union official said...The union had been formed with the agreement of the official All China Federation of Trades Unions (ACFTU), with almost all officials freely elected in July, he said, although ACTFU had appointed the union head. China outlaws unofficial unions and their formation is habitually repressed. However in this case the union was formed at the request of Reebok after it kept receiving direct representations from workers about working conditions, which had been rejected by the factory's owners, said Zhao. (AFP, 26 Sep. 2001)

Nike, Harvard Enter Into Apparel Deal [reports on differences of opinion about Nike’s labor practices] (Eugenia V. Levenson, Harvard Crimson, 18 Sep. 2001)

New Nike panel to tackle company's factory issues: Nike, criticized for working conditions at its factories outside the United States, will create a committee to oversee the company's labor, environmental and diversity policies. (Bloomberg News, in Seattle Times, 11 Sep. 2001)

Nike Board of Directors and CEO Philip H. Knight create corporate responsibility committee: Nike announced that the Board of Directors unanimously approved the creation of a corporate responsibility committee during its recent meeting. The new committee will be responsible for reviewing, reporting and making recommendations to the full Board of Directors regarding the company's business strategy and practices and their alignment with corporate responsibility commitments. The committee will review the company's efforts in the area of labor compliance initiatives, environmental practices, community affairs programs, human resources, diversity issues and philanthropic efforts. (Nike, 10 Sep. 2001)

McMahon throws in with workers: Kevin McMahon will stage an understated but committed protest when he throws the hammer Friday at the Goodwill Games in Brisbane, Australia...''It took me 13 years to earn this uniform, and I'd like to be proud of it,'' McMahon says. ''How do I know it wasn't made in a sweatshop? I don't feel proud when I'm contributing to a system that exploits the poor.''...McMahon...has researched the issue this summer and wants companies such as Nike, Adidas and Reebok to improve disclosure of factory locations, restitution for past abuses and institution of workers' rights including formation of unions. (Dick Patrick, USA TODAY, 7 Sep. 2001)

Court acquits labor activist of strike charges [Indonesia]: The Tangerang District Court delivered an important verdict on Thursday as it acquitted labor activist Ngadinah from all charges made against her. Ngadinah, 29, an employee of PT. Panarub, a company that produces Adidas shoes, was tried for allegedly provoking her fellow workers to stage a massive strike last September in a demand for better wages. (Jakarta Post, 30 Aug. 2001)

Business as usual: Mexico's president ignores old-style labor repression - When workers at the Kuk Dong assembly plant went on strike earlier this year, the result was business as usual -- state police stormed the factory to break the strike, and the company fired hundreds of workers....By accepting the status quo, the Fox administration is drawing growing protests from Mexican reformers, U.S. activists and congressional Democrats that Mexico is violating internationally recognized labor rights. (Wendy Patterson, San Francisco Chronicle, 19 July 2001)

An Online Look: Inside Nike's Contract Factories [12-minute online video tour of one of Nike's contract factories in Vietnam] (Nike)

Letter to Mexican President Fox [from Canadian religious, labour and NGO leaders - urging him to ensure workers' rights are respected at Nike's Kuk Dong supply factory. [Mexico] (5 July 2001)

Still Waiting For Nike To Respect the Right to Organize (Tim Connor, Global Exchange, on Corpwatch website, 28 June 2001)

UW [University of Wisconsin] System regents OK $8.3 million Adidas deal ["The deal also allows UW to study the company's records to make sure Adidas employees are not working in sweatshop conditions. The company will provide names and locations of all factories making Badger uniforms, and UW inspectors would be allowed to check those factories."] (Sharif Durhams, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 9 June 2001)

Kukdong - Independent Union Leader Beaten by CROC supporters [Mexico] (Campaign for Labor Rights, 17 May 2001)

On third anniversary of Knight speech, Nike reviews challenges and successes of corporate responsibility initiatives in a complex global economy: New partnerships, increased resources, engagement with NGOs have made Nike "a better company," says Chairman Phil Knight (Nike, 15 May 2001)

Second negotiation-attempt with Adidas failed. Pilot-project with the German Clean Clothes Campaign refused. (Clean Clothes Campaign, 8 May 2001)

University acts to cut ties with some apparel firms: The University of Iowa has canceled 176 licenses with apparel companies that either failed to disclose the location of their factories or sign the school's code of conduct. (Chicago Tribune, 3 May 2001)

Former President Jimmy Carter and Reebok Chairman Paul Fireman work to advance human rights (Reebok, 1 May 2001)

Overview of Recent Developments on Monitoring and Verification in the Garment and Sportswear Industry in Europe - Second edition (Nina Ascoly, Joris Oldenziel & Ineke Zeldenrust, SOMO-Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations and Clean Clothes Campaign, May 2001)

Worker Rights in the Americas [El Salvador]? A Rare Inside Glimpse: Suppressed USAID-funded investigation documents systematic denial of rights and "abject poverty" wages of eighty-five thousand maquila workers, mostly young women sewing garments for Nike, Jordan, Adidas, Gap, Ohio State, Duke, University of Michigan, Georgetown, Kohl's, Wal-Mart and Elderwear school uniforms. (National Labor Committee, May 2001)

Still Waiting For Nike To Do It: Nike's Labor Practices in the Three Years Since CEO Phil Knight's Speech to the National Press Club (Tim Connor, Global Exchange, May 2001)

The terms of global trade [Wal-Mart/ASDA letter to Guardian responding to 9 Apr. 2001 article concerning allegations of child labour at textile suppliers in Bangladesh] (letter from Christine Watts, Corporate affairs director, ASDA, Guardian [UK], 14 Apr. 2001)

FLA [Fair Labor Association] denounces ELF [Earth Liberation Front] actions [advocating violence against Nike stores] (Nike, 11 Apr. 2001)

Textile workers build solidarity in Bangladesh (Seumas Milne, Guardian [UK], 9 Apr. 2001)

Stanford Refuses to Cut Ties to Nike - Despite 3-year protest, huge contract a go (Bill Workman, San Francisco Chronicle, 6 Apr. 2001)

Faculty and students question Nike contract (letters to the editor, Stanford Daily [Stanford University, California], 5 Apr. 2001)

Lollipops, Homer Simpson and monkfish livers on the move: Glimpses of a Shrinking World [regarding factories doing contract work for Nike in Vietnam] (excerpt, from Ted Anthony, Associated Press, 28 Mar. 2001)

Kuk Dong Workers Establish an Independent Union [Mexico] (Campaign for Labor Rights and US/LEAP, 22 Mar. 2001)

Articles about Nike in Human Rights & Business Matters, newsletter of Amnesty International UK Business Group, spring/summer 2001:

Recipients of Reebok 12th Human Rights Awards urge global action to back their causes (Reebok, 21 March 2001)

Real allies in the Global Alliance [Thailand] (Junya Yimprasert, Co-ordinator, Thai Labour Campaign, and Christopher Candland, Professor of Political Science, Wellesley College, undated)

Nike develops remediation plan for Kukdong [factory in Mexico] based on recently completed independent audit (Nike, 14 Mar. 2001)

A buoyant market for ethics: Co-ordinated mass market action by consumers increasingly compels corporations to rethink policies (Peter Singer, Center for Human Values, Princeton University, in Financial Times, 11 Mar. 2001)

Consultation with Footwear Workers: Report of a Pilot Study [Vietnam] - This report details the process and resulting lessons from a pilot survey in a footwear factory carried out by ActionAid as part of the Vietnam Business Links Initiative (Juliet Edington, Mar. 2001)

Overview of Recent Developments on Monitoring and Verification in the Garment and Sportswear Industry in Europe (Nina Ascoly, Joris Oldenziel, Ineke Zeldenrust, SOMO - Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, Mar. 2001)

Indonesian Workers in Nike Plants List Abuses (Rajiv Chandrasekaran, Washington Post, 23 Feb. 2001)

Human rights activists speak out against Nike: ... Keady and Kretzu spent last August living in solidarity with Nike factory workers in Indonesia and living on their wages. They spoke Friday at Allen Hall about sweatshops and the exploitation of workers in developing countries. "Our goal was to humanize the sweatshop issue," Kretzu said. "Nike is undermining human dignity for a profit. You may survive on $1.25 a day, but you can not live and maintain your dignity." (Tom Polansek, The Daily Illini [University of Illinois], 12 Feb. 2001) 

KUKDONG: Sweatshop conditions indicative of problems facing global workers - The recent attention focused on a Mexican factory producing Nike and Reebok sweatshirts has once again highlighted the problems of sweatshop conditions in apparel factories around the world (Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 6 Feb. 2001)

ILRF [International Labor Rights Fund] Commissions Investigation of Mexican Factory (International Labor Rights Fund, 1 Feb. 2001)

Update Regarding Kukdong Mexico Factory (Nike, 1 Feb. 2001)

Investigators' Report on Nike Contractor in Mexico Calls for Immediate Action to Enable Illegally Fired Workers to Return to Work: University fact-finders cite "substantial evidence of severe on-going violations of worker rights" (Worker Rights Consortium, 25 Jan. 2001)

Nike Letter to Worker Rights Consortium (WRC) [regarding labour dispute at Kukdong factory in Mexico] (Associated Press, 21 Jan. 2001)

Update on Labor Dispute at Kukdong Apparel Factory - Mexico City (Nike, 16 Jan. 2001)

Police Raid Strike at Nike Factory in Mexico (Global Exchange, 14 Jan. 2001)  

Multinationality and corporate ethics: codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry -...Six companies (Nike, Reebok, Puma, Mizuno, Asics, Adidas and Mizuno, of which only the first four have a code), three business support groups (AAMA, AFA, AIP), three social interest groups (CEPAA, CCC, AHRC) and three international organisations (ILO, WFSGI, FIFA) are analysed. (Ans Kolk & Rob van Tulder, Journal of International Business Studies, 2001)

Nike & Global Labour Practices (David F. Murphy & David Mathew, New Academy of Business Innovation Network for Socially Responsible Business, 2001) 

2000:

Adidas's human rights policy back on track (Robert Crawford, Financial Times, 20 Dec. 2000)

Can Corporate Codes of Conduct Promote Labor Standards? Evidence from the Thai Footwear and Apparel Industries (Junya Yimprasert and Christopher Candland, Thai Labour Campaign, Dec. 2000)

New alliance [Global Alliance for Workers and Communities] asks workers overseas what they desire (Kate Shatzkin, Baltimore Sun, 30 Nov. 2000)

Adidas Attacked for Asian 'Sweatshops' (Andrew Osborn, Guardian Unlimited, 23 Nov. 2000) 

Nike workers appeal to Tiger Woods [Thailand] (Thai Labor Campaign, 14 Nov. 2000)

UO [University of Oregon] Wins Back Knight [Nike CEO Phil Knight] as Fan, but Not as Donor (kgw.com [Portland, Oregon], 10 Nov. 2000)

Business and Human Rights - new roles for the global players (Christopher Avery, Nov. 2000)

Tripartite Meeting on Labour Practices in the Footwear, Leather, Textiles and Clothing Industries - Geneva, 16-20 October 2000 (International Labour Organization): 

Gap and Nike: No Sweat? BBC Panorama reveals that Gap and Nike have been using a factory in Cambodia which breaks their own strict codes of conduct and anti-sweatshop rules (BBC, 15 Oct. 2000)

Global Alliance for Workers and Communities:

Nike: American dream on RI [Republic of Indonesia] sweat (Donna K. Woodward, Jakarta Post, 13 Sep. 2000)

Nike Workers (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 12 Sep. 2000)

Lian Thai Industrial and the Global Alliance for Workers and Communities [Thailand] (Junya Yimprasert, Thai Labour Campaign, 8 Sep. 2000)

My factory visits in Southeast Asia and UM [University of Michigan] code and monitoring (memo from Linda Lim [Associate Professor of Business Administration, University of Michigan Business School] to Larry Root [Director, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Michigan], 6 Sep. 2000)

Global Manufacturing and Taylorism Practices of Nike Corporation and its Subcontractors: A proposal to coordinate joint university researcher study groups (International Academy of Business Disciplines, Sep. 2000)

Like Cutting Bamboo: Nike and Indonesian Workers' Right to Freedom of Association (NikeWatch, Community Aid Abroad [Oxfam Australia], Sep. 2000) 

Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 2000)

Close Look at Factory for Nikes [Indonesia]:...the Nike representatives in Indonesia are upfront in saying that it was American public pressure that pushed Nike to require its contractors to improve pay, benefits and working conditions over the past three years. (Frank Denton, Wisconsin State Journal, 30 July 2000)

Opening comments before the Global Compact by Nike Chairman & CEO Philip H. Knight (Nike, 26 July 2000)

Paying a Price [China] (Dan Biers, Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 July 2000)

SEZs - Specially Exploitative Zones [China] (Corporate Watch magazine, Issue 11, summer 2000)

Sweaty Sneakers (Alan Pittman, Eugene Weekly [Oregon, USA], 13 June 2000)

A Letter to Jiang Zemin: The quixotic tale of three American CEOs and their ill-fated mission to change China from the inside (Tony Emerson, Newsweek International, 29 May 2000)

Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands, USA): Gap and other retailers: case in U.S. court regarding the companies' conduct in Saipan:

Nike in China (Nike, 10 May 2000)

Dark Knight [regarding Nike] (Michele Orecklin, Time, 8 May 2000)

U-M [University of Michigan] Bungles Nike Deal (editorial, Detroit News, 5 May 2000)

Open Letter to Nike by FLA-Member NGOs (Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, National Consumers League, International Labor Rights Fund, Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, 4 May 2000) 

Nike wrong-foots the student critics (Jagdish Baghwati, Professor of Economics, Columbia University, in Financial Times, 2 May 2000)

Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation for Continuous Improvement in the Global Workplace (Charles Sabel, Dara O'Rourke, Archon Fung, May 2000)

Chinese Rights, U.S. Wrongs: Interviews with Wei Jingsheng and Alice Kwan (Multinational Monitor, May 2000)

The Final Report of The Advisory Committee on Labor Standards and Human Rights (University of Michigan, May 2000) 

Made in China: The Role of U.S. Companies In Denying Human and Worker Rights (National Labor Committee, May 2000) 

Sweatshops Behind the Swoosh: A report on recent investigations of working conditions in Nike contractor plants in Asia (authored by seven non-governmental organisations, 25 April 2000)

Will Nike spurn colleges? (Greg Bolt, Register-Guard [Eugene, Oregon], 22 Apr. 2000)

Apparel Makers Fund New Labor Group To Inspect Factories, Screen for Sweatshops [Fair Labor Association] (Joseph Pereira, Wall Street Journal, 10 Apr. 2001)

Rise of the Corporate Nation-State (Laurent Belsie, Christian Science Monitor, 10 Apr. 2000)

At the Intersection of Business and Human Rights (Laurent Belsie, Christian Science Monitor, 4 Apr. 2000)

Codes of Conduct, Government Regulation and Worker Organizing - Codes of Conduct: The Debates (Bob Jeffcott and Lynda Yanz, Maquila Solidarity Network, Feb. 2000)

Time and Nike (Academy of Management, 2000)

1999:

relevant sections of Business and Human Rights in a Time of Change (Christopher Avery, Nov. 1999):

Nike Identifies Plants Abroad Making Goods for Universities (Steven Greenhouse, New York Times, 8 Oct. 1999) 

Reebok releases in-depth report on conditions in Indonesian factories [includes full text of report] (Reebok, Oct. 1999) 

An open letter to Philip Knight CEO of Nike Inc., from over 40 human rights organisations, unions and academic researchers concerned about the human rights of workers (22 Sep. 1999)

Human Rights Is Our Business: Multinational Chief [Note: scroll down to 3rd article] (Human Rights for Workers, 6 Sep. 1999)

Commentary: It's Europe's Turn to Sweat about Sweatshops (William Echikson, BusinessWeek Online, 19 July 1999)

Mattel, Levi Strauss, and Reebok International Endorse Human Rights Principles for US Business in China (Sweatshop Watch, 28 May 1999)

Sita and her daughters: Women workers at an Indian export-processing zone (T.K. Rajalakshmi, PANOS, 1 May 1999)

Job Opportunity or Exploitation? Asia: To Vietnam's impoverished, a $65-a-month position at a Nike factory is a prize.  Though the company has cracked down on labor abuses in the last few years, critics say the moral questions go beyond that.  (David Lamb, Los Angeles Times, 18 Apr. 1999)

Nike, Reebok compete to set labor rights pace (Trim Bissell, Campaign for Labor Rights, 25 Mar. 1999)

Reebok Calls on Indonesia to Release Labor Rights Activist (Reebok, 24 Mar. 1999)

Business and Human Rights: Global brands monitor manufacturing conditions worldwide (Doug Cahn [Vice President of Human Rights Programs, Reebok] and Tara Holeman [Associate Manager of Human Rights Programs, Reebok], Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, spring 1999)

Beginning to Just Do It: Current Workplace and Environmental Conditions at the Tae Kwang Vina Nike Shoe Factory in Vietnam (Dara O'Rourke and Garrett Brown, Mar. 1999)

Nike Ducks Responsibility (Campaign for Labor Rights, 2 Feb. 1999)

Presidential Apparel Industry Partnership lashes out against Nike [Vietnam] (letter to Nike's President from Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, National Consumers League, Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Rights, International Labor Rights Fund, 29 Jan. 1999)

Nike letter to Vietnam reopens old wounds (Jeff Manning, The Oregonian, 24 Jan. 1999)

Nike accuses its critics: A senior executive of sports shoe manufacturer Nike has accused critics of the company's labour practices in Vietnam of indirectly seeking to overthrow Vietnam's communist government. (Financial Times, 21 Jan. 1999)

Nike Says Labor Protesters Have Vietnam Political Agenda (AP, 20 Jan. 1999)

Voluntary Codes of Conduct: Do they Strengthen or Undermine Government Regulation and Worker Organizing? (Bob Jeffcott and Lynda Yanz, Maquila Solidarity Network, 1999)

1998:

Corporations and Conscience (editorial, New York Times, 6 Dec. 1998)

Export Processing Zones (International Labour Organization, Dec. 1998)

Nike and Catholic Social Teaching: A Challenge to the Christian Mission at St. John's University (James Keady, St. John's University, spring 1998)

Can multinationals buy good conduct? (Luc Demaret, Trade Union World, 1 Feb. 1998)

1997:

Workers' Rights are Human Rights (Dr. Anita Chan, Australian Research Council Fellow, in China Rights Forum, summer 1997) 

Ernst & Young Environmental and Labor Practice Audit of the Tae Kwang Vina Industrial Ltd. Co., Vietnam (Ernst & Young, 13 Jan. 1997)

Business ethics in the textile, clothing and footwear (TCF) industries: Codes of Conduct (J.P. Sajhau, ILO working paper, 1997) 

1996:

Limits to the social responsibility of business (David Korten, PCD Forum, People-Centered Development Forum, June 1996)

Behind the Wire: Anti-union repression in the export processing zones (Jean-Paul Marhoz and Marcela Szymanski, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Apr. 1996)